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2021 NY Resolution: Take your mask and shove it up your ass.
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User Info How The Left Hides The Sausage....; entered at 2021-02-21 12:42:17
Winston2020
Posts: 125
Registered: 2020-03-29
My guess about the cause the second and larger spike:

FEBRUARY 17, 2021
Mutation in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein renders virus up to eight times more infectious

https://phys.org/news/2021-02-mutation-s....

The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteincommonly referred to as the "G variant"likely ***emerged in early 2020 and is now is the most prevalent and dominant form of the SARS-CoV-2 virus across the United States*** and in many countries around the globe. With multiple mutations circulating, researchers have been working to understand the functional significance of these mutations and whether they meaningfully change how infectious or deadly the virus is.

In this study, the researchers introduced a virus with the D614G mutation into human lung, liver, and colon cells. They also introduced the "wild type" version of the coronavirusthe version of the virus without the mutation found early on in the pandemicinto these same cell types for comparison.

They found that the D614G variant increased transduction, or transmissibility, of the virus up to ***eight-fold*** as compared to the original virus. The researchers also found that the spike protein mutation made the virus more resistant to being cleaved or split by other proteins. This provides a possible mechanism for the variant's increased ability to infect cells, as the hardier variant resulted in a greater proportion of intact spike protein per virus.

The team's findings join a growing consensus among scientists that the D614G variant is more infectious; this was also demonstrated in studies appearing in Cell by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, in Nature by researchers at the University of North Carolina, and in Science by researchers at the University of Texas. However, it is still unclear whether the variant and its rapid spread have a clinical impact on COVID-19 disease progression, as several studies suggest that the D614G variant is not linked to more severe disease or hospitalization.

The researchers note that findings on the increased transmissibility of the D614G variant may influence COVID-19 vaccine development and, in particular, it may be beneficial for future booster shots to include diverse forms of the spike protein from different circulating variants. The vaccines with emergency use authorization from the FDA, as well as those under development, were created using the original spike sequence; studies are underway to understand how well these vaccines protect against the variants that emerged in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil, all of which contain the D614G mutation. Recent work from other groups suggests that initial vaccines with the D614 form of spike can protect against the newer G614 form of spike, although more work needs to be done to understand how multiple mutations can interact with each other and impact immune response.
2021-02-21 12:42:17